Herniated Disc

What is a Herniated Disc?

A herniated disc is a condition where the soft inner material of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, often putting pressure on the spinal nerves and causing pain, numbness, or weakness in the arms or legs.

Many people have no symptoms. For people who do have symptoms, the symptoms tend to improve over time. Surgery is usually not necessary to relieve the problem.


The symptoms of a herniated disc can vary depending on the location of the herniation and the extent of nerve compression. Some common symptoms include:

  • Back pain or neck pain
  • Numbness or tingling in the arms, legs, chest, or groin
  • Weakness in the arms or legs
  • Burning or shooting pain down the legs or arms
  • Muscle spasms or cramping
  • Difficulty with coordination and balance

It is important to note that some people may have a herniated disc but have no symptoms, while others may have symptoms without a herniation.

When to see a Doctor

You should see a doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • Severe or persistent pain in the back, neck, or legs
  • Numbness or tingling that spreads down the arms or legs
  • Weakness in the legs or arms that interferes with daily activities
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • A progressive decrease in your ability to move or feel sensations in your arms or legs

These symptoms may be a sign of a more serious condition and prompt medical attention is recommended. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent the progression of symptoms and improve the chances of a successful recovery.

How is a herniated disc diagnosed?

A herniated disc is usually diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests. The following tests may be used to diagnose a herniated disc:

  • Physical examination: Your doctor will assess your symptoms, check your reflexes and muscle strength, and perform other tests to determine the source of your pain.
  • Imaging tests: X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans can help your doctor see the bones, discs, and other structures of your spine and determine if you have a herniated disc.
  • Nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG): These tests can help measure the electrical activity of your muscles and nerves and determine if they are functioning normally.
  • Discography: This is a procedure in which dye is injected into the affected disc to help confirm the presence of a herniated disc and determine the specific cause of your pain.

Your doctor may use one or more of these tests to diagnose a herniated disc and rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.

What are the treatment options?

The treatment options for a herniated disc vary depending on the severity of the condition and the symptoms experienced. Here are some common treatments:

  • Conservative (non-surgical) treatments: This may include physical therapy, pain medications, hot or cold compresses, and other measures to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
  • Epidural steroid injections: This is a procedure in which a corticosteroid medication is injected into the epidural space surrounding the affected nerve root to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Chiropractic care: This may include adjustments, manipulations, and other techniques to improve spinal alignment and reduce pressure on the affected nerve roots.
  • Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the herniated portion of the disc and relieve pressure on the affected nerve roots. Common surgical procedures include microdiscectomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion.

The choice of treatment will depend on the individual case and your doctor will advise the best course of action based on your symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.